A reagent used primarily in reference laboratories composed of a mixture of a proteolytic enzyme (papain) and a sulfhydryl reagent (dithiothreitol, or “DTT“). It is used to remove immunoglobulins and complement from the surface of red blood cells, commonly when evaluating a potential autoantibody. ZZAP also deactivates a multitude of red cell antigens on the red cell surface. The most important antigens damaged/destroyed by ZZAP include all Kell antigens, M, N, and the two main Duffy antigens (Fya and Fyb), to name a few.
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